Saturday, July 26, 2014

Does mouth rinsing with carbohydrates boost exercise and sports performance? By Jerry Brainum


Carbohydrates are the most efficient fuel for exercise. While certain amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose, which is the only sugar that circulates in the blood, the conversion of protein or amino acids into glucose is an inefficient process that doesn't yield much glucose. As for fat, only the glycerol portion of the triglyceride structure can be converted into glucose in the liver. Thus, only 10% of fat is capable of being converted into glucose. Carbs are considered the high test fuel to power both exercise and sports. Studies show that carb intake consistently improves performance in activity lasting more than 2 hours. It does this by maintaining glycogen stores, which are the primary fuel for anaerobic exercise, including bodybuilding exercise, and also enhancing carb oxidation, as well as maintaining a high energy level throughout the course of exercise or sports. When it comes to exercise lasted an hour or less, carbs aren't as vital. Studies have even shown that ingesting carbs prior to a high intensity weight workout does not contribute to the intensity level. But this also depends on the existing muscle glycogen state. With a depleted glycogen state, as occurs with a zero carb diet, ingesting the equivalent of one gram of carb per minute does boost intensity level during training.
    Some studies suggest that you don't even have to ingest carbs to provide an ergogenic effect. Merely rinsing the mouth with a carb solution for a few seconds is enough to boost energy and exercise performance. One study showed that cyclists who rinsed their mouths with carbs showed a 2.9% improvement in performance. Other studies have shown similar results with running.
    Why would just rinsing the mouth with carbs provide an ergogenic effect?  Some suggest that rinsing the mouth with carbs activates neural pathways that lower the perception of effort during exercise. A study published two years found that carb mouth rinsing didn't affect strength performance. A new study examined the effects of carb mouth rinsing during multiple sprints, which is a high intensity activity. The study subjects consisted of eight trained men, all with athletic backgrounds. The average age was 21. Anyone who had used creatine supplements, which would affect the outcome of the study was eliminated if they had ingested any creatine within 12 weeks of the study onset. The subjects were also asked to refrain from ingesting any caffeine and to ensure that they were fully hydrated to prevent dehydration-based interference.
     The men rinsed their mouths with either a carb solution composed of maltodextrin 6.4% or a placebo. They rinsed their mouths for 30 seconds before engaging in various sprint tests. The results show no improvement in sprint times, perceived exertion, or blood glucose levels in the men that rinsed with the carb solution. As such, the conclusion of the study was that mouth rinsing with carbs is not an effective ergogenic aid. It short, it just doesn't work.

Darling JK, et al. Effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on multiple sprint performance.J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013: 10:41.

©,2014 Jerry Brainum. Any reprinting in any type of media, including electronic and foreign is expressly prohibited.

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Friday, June 20, 2014

Will baking soda help you train harder? By Jerry Brainum



Depending on which study that you look at, sodium bicarbonate (better known as baking soda) is either an efficient ergogenic aid, or just another way to induce nausea. Sodium bicarb acts to alkalinize or reduce acidity. It is made in the body, and used to help maintain a narrow range of acid/base levels in the blood. Either excessive alkaline or acidic blood is very harmful to health. Sodium bicarb is often administered to patients suffering from heart attacks, in which a lack of sufficient oxygen flow to cells results from a failure of the heart to sufficiently pump blood leading to increased blood acidity. From an athletic standpoint, while there are several causes of muscle fatigue, increased acidity is definitely one of them. Increased muscle acidity is the result of anaerobic metabolism, whereby waste products of muscle metabolism boost local acidity in muscles. This, in turn, interferes with the activity of certain energy-related enzymes, which cannot function in an acidic environment.
    While lactic acid has often been accused in the past of being the primary instigator of increased muscle acidity, in fact only the acid portion of lactic acid is the true culprit. Lactate itself is a reusable fuel, where it is released into the blood from exercised muscle, sent to the liver, and then reconverted into glucose in a process known as the Cori cycle. The actual process of converting lactate into glucose is known as gluconeogenesis. So the actual acidity from lactic acid are hydrogen ions. These hydrogen ions cause a drop in both muscle and blood pH levels, meaning higher acidity. In the muscle, this leads to lower rates of glycolysis, or use of glucose as a fuel; an interference with the activity of calcium ions required for muscular contraction; and an increased feeling of overall fatigue in the muscle.
     Although sodium bicarb doesn't work in the muscle itself, it does impart an alkalosis, or acid-lowering effect in the blood. This lowers levels of hydrogen ions in the blood. But the sodium bicarb also tends to promote exit of lactic acid out of the muscle and into the blood, and this is where the ergogenic effect comes into play. Since the increase of metabolic acid occurs mainly during higher intensity, short-term activity, the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarb is most evident for shorter duration events, such as sprints. But not all studies of sodium bicarb have found a definite improvement after its use. A recent analysis of prior studies that have involved sodium bicarb use in sports found that it was ergogenic in 38% of the studies.
   Since weight-training and bodybuilding exercise normally features a short period of high intensity, and since the major cause of fatigue appears to be increased muscle acidity (felt as a burning sensation in the trained muscle), it would initially appear that sodium bicarb would be an ideal ergogenic aid for use in bodybuilding and other weight-training activity. Several studies have examined whether sodium bicarb may be useful for those engaged in weight-training. The results have been mixed, with some studies showing increased repititions done, less feelings of fatigue after using sodium bicarb. Other studies, however, have not shown any improvements.
    One primary reason for the lack of response after ingesting sodium bicarb is that since it works by neutralizing excessive acidity, for it to work you need to impose a level of exercise intensity high enough to significantly boost muscle acidity levels. Several of the prior studies that showed no effects after using sodium bicarb did not provide sufficient  intensity levels for the bicarb to do anything. In actuality, you would need to use enough weight to stress the muscle, and do each exercise to failure as a means of producing an intensity level high enough to truly test the effects of bicarb.  
   This was precisely what was done in a new study that involved 8 men experienced in weight training. They ingested either 0.3 milligrams of sodium bicarb per kilogram of bodyweight, which is the standard dose for athletic purposes, or a placebo consisting of salt water. Both treatments were separated by 48 hours, and both drinks were mixed with 5 milliliters per kilogram of bodyweight  flavored, sweetened water provided in a opaque flask. The men then did 3 sets of bench press and back squat using 80% of one-rep max weight done to complete muscle failure. The results showed that when the men consumed the sodium bicarb solution, they were able to complete additional reps in the squat compared to the salt water placebo. But when they did the bench press five minutes after the squat exercise, no improvement was noted. The men did a similar number of reps on the first set of both the squat and bench press, but did more reps on the second and third set of the squat. The study authors suggest that the failure protocol used in the exercises explains the clear ergogenic effect of sodium bicarb. Why the bicarb didn't work for the bench press wasn't explained, but it may be related to the larger muscle mass of the legs compared to that used when doing a bench press. More muscle mass means more muscle acidity.
    Should you consider regular use of sodium bicarb to enhance workout performance? While baking soda is not expensive compared to high priced "pre-workout" supplements, routine use of sodium bicarb would not be a good idea because of the high sodium content of baking soda. In fact, it is the high sodium content of baking soda that has limited its use among athletes, since many have experienced gastrointestinal distress following the use of sodium bicarb. But there are ways around this. If you ingest a high carb meal, 120-150 minutes prior to exercise, and at that time consume a dose of 0.3 grams of sodium bicarb per kilogram of bodyweight mixed with 7 milliliters of water per kilogram of bodyweight, the risk of gastrointestinal distress drops significantly. Most of the problems that have occurred with ingestion of sodium bicarb have involved ingesting it too close to exercise or sports activity.
     Recent research suggests that sodium bicarb is synergistic with beta alanine, which works to boost levels of carnosine, an intramuscular buffer in muscle. Creatine also lowers muscle acidity, and the combination of sodium bicarb and creatine offers a potent weapon against premature training fatigue, and would likely allow you to train with an increased level of intensity, which translates into increased muscle and strength gains. Adding caffeine to the mixture would make it even more potent, with the amount of caffeine being 300-400 milligrams.






Duncan, M.J, et al. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure. J Strength Cond Res 2013: in press.

©,2013 Jerry Brainum. Any reprinting in any type of media, including electronic and foreign is expressly prohibited.

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Sunday, June 1, 2014

Does fasting high intensity interval training burn more fat? by Jerry Brainum


There are two basic types of aerobic training, long-slow distance (LSD) and high intensity interval training (HIIT). With the long-slow distance, you exercise at a constant level of intensity, usually based on your age and fitness level, for a set amount of time. The HIIT training is characterized by short bursts of high intensity exercise, as shown by a higher pulse rate and exercise intensity, interspersed with brief recovery periods, where you slow down, and let your pulse drop down. The main advantage of doing HIIT training as opposed to the more conventional LSD type of aerobics, is that you get the same, or better results with far less investment of training time. Indeed, studies show that just 6 HIIT training sessions over a 2-week period resulted in the same changes in muscle oxidative capacity as doing continuous moderate intensity aerobics that required 3-fold as much training time, and 9-times more training volume. A recent study showed that doing HIIT of 10x 60 second intervals at 90% of maximum heart rate led to an immediate increase in insulin sensitivity as measured by a lower resting glucose level in diabetics.
    So it appears that you can get the same, or even superior benefits with HIIT compared to conventional LSD training. The notable advantage of HIIT is far less time in the gym. In addition, from a bodybuilding perspective, you also are less likely to slip into an overtraining state from doing HIIT compared to hours of conventional aerobics.
    A current issue of aerobic training is whether you should exercise in a fasted state, or eat something prior to training. Some believe that exercising in a fasted state permits more fat oxidation, especially when done first thing in the morning. The idea here is that glycogen levels are low in the when you awaken, and thus it's easier to tap into fat stores when you exercise at that time. One study found that 6 weeks of conventional aerobic exercise in the fasted state produced changes that resulted in greater muscle oxidative enzymes (required for fat oxidation or "burning."), and also increased glucose and fatty acid transport capacity. Young men who engaged in fasted aerobics didn't gain weight despite consuming a higher fat and calorie intake.
    Based on these findings, a new study had 16 overweight, obese women engage in HIIT for 6 weeks. They used the 10x 60 seconds HIIT protocol, during which they raised their heart beat levels to 90% of maximum for 60 seconds, followed by a recovery period in which they slowed down (they were on stationary bikes) for another 60 seconds. They did 10 bouts of this per session, three times a week for a total of 18 sessions. But eight of the women consumed a meal prior to the exercise session, while the other eight did the exercise in a fasted state. The women who ate consumed a meal an hour prior to exercise, while the fasted women ate their last meal before exercise the evening before, but did eat a meal an hour after the exercise. The meals consisted of 439 calories, with 74% of the calories derived from carbohydrates.
    The results showed that both groups showed similar beneficial changes, and that eating the meal prior to training had no effects on these changes.Specifically, the women showed reduced fat in their thighs and abdominal regions. And they got this from only 30 minutes of exercise a week. HIIT may be more efficient at lower body fat levels because of increased release of hormones that promote fat mobilization, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. HIIT also leads to a higher post-exercise oxygen consumption, which means a higher resting metabolic rate compared to conventional aerobics. One recent study also suggested that HIIT produces a greater decrease of appetite after training, which means less total food consumption.
   One change that didn't occur was an increase in insulin sensitivity. This effect more often happens in men, and is related to a greater depletion of existing glycogen stores. When women exercise, they are more efficient at preserving glycogen levels. In fact, they use up to 50% less glycogen then men during high intensity exercise. In addition, about 25% of people just don't get any change in insulin sensitivity following exercise, and another 15% show a decline in insulin sensitivity. But since abdominal fat, especially the deep-lying visceral fat, is related to insulin sensitivity, and since all the women in this study did lose significant amounts of abdominal fat, the odds are that their insulin sensitivity was improved, but the effect was more subtle.The women also showed lean mass gains in their legs, which never occurs with conventional aerobics.Gains in lean mass, or muscle, are known to boost insulin sensitivity.
    So for those who lack the time to engage in long aerobic sessions in an effort to reduce excess body fat levels, HIIT may be the best way to go.




Gillen, JB, et al. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women.Obesity 2013;21: 249-2255.

 ©,2013 Jerry Brainum. Any reprinting in any type of media, including electronic and foreign is expressly prohibited.

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